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Lewis Hamilton in the F1 Spanish GP (Photo by David Ramos/Getty Images)

What are track limits in F1? Rule, penalties, and more explored

F1 track limits are a common debate topic whenever drivers get penalized for exceeding the set limits on a track. Drivers often exceed the track limits to either improve their lap time or gain an advantage. Let us take a look at the rules and the penalties issued for exceeding track limits.

The track limit is the white line that defines the edge of the circuit and acts as a boundary for the drivers to stay inside. At any moment in time, at least a single wheel of the car should be inside the white line. A driver gets penalized if all four wheels of a car are outside the white line.


Article 33.3 of F1's Sporting Regulations reads:

"Drivers must make every reasonable effort to use the track at all times and may not leave the track without a justifiable reason.
"Drivers will be judged to have left the track if no part of the car remains in contact with it and, for the avoidance of doubt, any white lines defining the track edges are considered to be part of the track but the kerbs are not."
Nico Hulkenberg exceeding track limits in F1 Spanish GP (F1TV)

The stewards closely monitor all the cars for track limits throughout the weekend in practice sessions, qualifying, and the race. In the practice and qualifying sessions, a track limits penalty usually means a driver loses his lap time, during which he committed the offense.


During the race, a driver gets a warning each time he exceeds the track to gain an advantage. A black and white flag is shown when a driver exceeds track limits for the third time, which marks the final warning. If the rules are flouted for a fourth time, a five-second time penalty is handed to the driver.

Any more excursions outside the white line will be awarded a 10-second penalty. In the 2022 Austrian GP, multiple drivers received a five-second time penalty. At the season opener in the 2023 Bahrain GP, Nico Hulkenberg was awarded a 10-second penalty.

What are the different flags used in F1?


Marshals present in an F1 event use various flags to indicate the track conditions to the drivers. While the yellow, red, and checkered flags are well known among fans, there are other flags that make rare appearances in a Grand Prix event. Here is the list of flags used in the F1 event.

Green Flag

Indicates the track is clear for racing.

Yellow Flag

This is a signal of danger. There are two variants:

Single waved: Drivers need to reduce speed, no overtaking, and must be prepared to change direction due to hazards on track.

Double waved: Drivers need to reduce their speed significantly, no overtaking, and must be prepared to change direction or stop.

Yellow and Red Flag

Slippery conditions ahead due to water or oil on the track.

Blue Flag

Driver must let the faster cars pass.

White Flag

A slow-moving vehicle ahead, also seen at the end of practice sessions, for practice starts.


Red Flag

The session has been stopped, return to the pitlane.

Black Flag

Driver disqualified must immediately return to their pit garage.

Black and Orange Flag

Known popularly as the 'meatball' flag, it indicates that a car has a mechanical problem and must pit as soon as possible.

Black and White

Warning to a driver for unsportsmanlike behavior.

Checkered flag

Marks the end of any practice session, qualifying session or race.


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Edited by
Akshay Saraswat
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