Partey completed a £45m move to Arsenal on deadline day, after the Gunners activated his release clause, to leave Atletico Madrid but to part ways with the player.
Partey arrived in North London on Tuesday, and has started training with his new team. He could make his debut against Manchester City in the Premier League this weekend.
"Arteta was very important [for the move]," Partey said, as quoted by Sky Sports.
"Him and (technical director) Edu told me about their plans and it was so exciting, so I had to accept it.
"[The manager] has seen me play and knows what I can bring to the team. I think he watched me at Atletico and wants me to bring the same to this team."
Thomas Partey looking forward to quick Arsenal transition
Partey will now come into an Arsenal midfield that is not yet set in stone, in terms of the personnel. Arteta has so far used only two central midfielders in his 3-4-3 system, with Granit Xhaka's performances making him near-undroppable.
Mohamed Elneny and Dani Ceballos have split the minutes alongside Xhaka in central midfield. Arteta was said to be hell-bent on signing a deep-lying midfielder this summer, having also been linked with Lyon's Houssem Aouar all summer.
"I think I have to be quick [to adapt] and learn everything as fast as I can. I have to do everything I have to do in training and make him see me and that I'm ready to play for him," Partey said.
"It's a great challenge. I want to experience new challenges. I'm ready to give it my all and help the club get back to where it belongs."
Arsenal finished 8th in the Premier League last season, after sacking Unai Emery midway through the season. Arteta came in and stabilised the ship, and has already won two trophies, with the Gunners winning the FA Cup and the Community Shield already.
Partey already has his eyes set on the Premier League title, but admitted that it would be difficult.
"But we will be working towards it. I think we are ready. We have to go all out to try and achieve."