In-form striker Duvan Zapata scored the only goal of the game. Gli Orobici won away to the Bianconeri for the first time in over 30 years.
In another frustrating game for Massimiliano Allegri's side, they were subdued in the first half. Despite raising the pressure after the break, they lacked the cutting edge to make their dominance count.
Paulo Dybala even rattled the crossbar in stoppage-time from a free-kick. But that was about as close as the Old Lady got on the night.
Juventus succumbed to their fifth defeat of the season in 14 games to remain in eighth place in the league standings. Meanwhile, Atalanta strengthened their grip on fourth spot.
Here are the player ratings for Juventus:
Wojciech Szczesny - 6/10
He had no chance with Zapata's goal and nearly gifted Atalanta a second with a terrible back-pass.
Juan Cuadrado - 7.5/10
A good shift at both ends from the Colombian, who looked dangerous in the attack. He also came up trumps defensively with two each of clearances, interceptions and tackles.
Matthijs de Ligt - 6.5/10
He gave the ball away to Zapata early on. He had no luck with either of his shots at goal, as both of them were blocked.
Leonardo Bonucci - 7.5/10
The Juventus skipper shone for his rock solid performance in defense. He also sparked a good counter after the break and saw a header fly narrowly wide of target.
Alex Sandro - 6/10
His forward runs didn't yield anything. Sandro made one excellent clearance on Zapata during a goal-mouth scramble in the second half.
Weston McKennie - 7/10
A lively attacking presence as McKennie created two good chances for Dybala and Chiesa. But he saw one of his own chances fizzle out. Berat Djimsiti nicked the ball off him before the American could line-up a shot.
Manuel Locatelli - 7/10
Locatelli was crucial in breaking up Atalanta's play. He also looked to push his side forward with some accurate long-balls.
Adrien Rabiot - 7/10
He came very close to scoring for Juventus but saw his effort saved by Juan Musso.
Federico Chiesa - 5/10
The Italian was unable to effect the contract in any meaningful way in the opening stanza. Allegri then took him off at the break in favor of Federico Bernardeschi.
Paulo Dybala - 6/10
He was quiet in the first half but sprung to life after the break. However, the end-product was lacking from his game. Dybala also rattled the crossbar with a free-kick in stoppage-time.
Alvaro Morata - 5.5/10
The Spaniard was totally anonymous in the opening stanza. Besides a few dangerous-looking runs, he couldn't produce anything noteworthy after the break either.
Federico Bernardeschi - 7/10
He saw a shot blocked by Musso and then won a free-kick on the edge of the box for Dybala in stoppage-time. Good effort.
Moise Kean - 5/10
The youngster was subbed to bolster Juventus' attack but he, too, failed to impress.
Kaio Jorge - N/A
The Brazilian only got five minutes to play although fans were eager to see more of him.