Saliba came on for Jules Kounde just 23 minutes into the UEFA Nations League game against the Austrians and impressed at the back for Didier Deschamps' side.
Les Blues secured a 2-0 win over Austria through second-half goals from Mbappe and Olivier Giroud.
Saliba earned his fifth international cap by coming on for Kounde. The centre-back posted on Instagram after the game, expressing delight over his appearance:
Mbappe responded to Saliba's post by writing, 'Duroooooo', which translates to:
It is yet another impressive performance for Saliba, who has shone for both the French national team and Arsenal.
The centre-back has been given his opportunity by Mikel Arteta this season and has kickstarted his Gunners career in fantastic fashion.
So much so that Arsenal fans have even started their own chant for the Frenchman, who has two goals and an assist in seven appearances.
Saliba was coming off the back of a breakout season for Olympique Marseille in which he was named Ligue 1 'Young Player of the Year'.
He made 52 appearances for Les Phocéens last season and has quickly become a mainstay in Deschamps' France squad.
PSG striker Mbappe and Arsenal defender Saliba could be key for France at the 2022 FIFA World Cup
Both PSG striker Mbappe and Arsenal defender Saliba can expect to be involved at the 2022 FIFA World Cup, which kicks off in just 57 days.
France are in Group D with Australia, Denmark and Tunisia and are among the favorites to lift the trophy come December time.
Les Blues are the current holders of the World Cup, having won the tournament back in 2018.
Mbappe shone for Deschamps' side in that campaign with four goals and an assist in seven appearances.
However, the Frenchman will be looking to improve on his last outing in an international tournament.
He missed the decisive penalty in a Round of 16 penalty shootout loss to Switzerland following a 3-3 draw at the European Championships last summer.
Mbappe continues to impress at club level with PSG having scored ten goals in nine appearances this season.
His form for PSG has seen them look likely to successfully defend their Ligue 1 crown and potentially challenge for first-ever Champions League glory.
Arsenal have had agreat start to the season as well on the back of impressive performances from Saliba as they currently sit top of the Premier League table.
Poll : Who will top Group D in FIFA World Cup 2022?