Fabio Quartararo took a record previously held by Marc Marquez on Saturday as he became the youngest man to claim a MotoGP pole at the Spanish Grand Prix.
Just two weeks after he turned 20, Quartararo had cause for celebration again as the Frenchman led a shock one-two for Petronas Yamaha that relegated five-time world champion Marquez into third.
Quartararo only stepped up to MotoGP this year, but finished seventh at the Grand Prix of the Americas last time out, and he is well placed to improve on that position in Jerez after clocking a quickest lap of one minute, 36.880 seconds late on.
Franco Morbidelli, son of former Formula One driver Gianni Morbidelli, will start second on the grid on Sunday while Marquez will complete the front row, with championship leader Andrea Dovizioso finishing fourth in qualifying.
Marquez had set the record for the youngest ever pole-sitter in 2013 at the Grand Prix of the Americas when he was 20 and he went onto win that race.
However, after crashing out in Texas three weeks ago, he has work to do if he is to retain his title.
Valentino Rossi, who is three points behind Dovizioso in the championship race, led the way in the early stages of the first qualifying session on Saturday, but a slide late on denied him progression to the second part, and he will begin 13th on the grid on Sunday.
1. Fabio Quartararo (Petronas Yamaha) 1:36.880
2. Franco Morbidelli (Petronas Yamaha) 1:36.962
3. Marc Marquez (Repsol Honda) 1:36.970
4. Andrea Dovizioso (Ducati) 1:37.018
5. Maverick Vinales (Monster Energy Yamaha) 1:37.114
6. Cal Crutchlow (LCR Honda) 1:37.175
7. Danilo Petrucci (Ducati) 1:37.209
8. Takaaki Nakagami (LCR Honda) 1:37.332
9. Alex Rins (Team Suzuki Ecstar) 1:37.351
10. Francesco Bagnaia (Pramac Racing) 1:37.384
11. Jorge Lorenzo (Repsol Honda) 1:37.496
12. Joan Mir (Team Suzuki Ecstar) 1:37.514