He had bowled only four overs in the first session and this raised a lot of doubts over his fitness, considering that Australia were struggling at 35-3. Stuart Broad had dismissed David Warner and Cameron Bancroft while Woakes accounted for Usman Khawaja's wicket.
This would have been the ideal situation for Anderson to bowl a long spell under helpful conditions but he never returned to bowl after Chris Woakes replaced him as the first-change bowler.
With Anderson not available to bowl, Australia took advantage of the situation with Travis Head and Steven Smith stitching up a positive 48-run partnership. At the lunch interval, Australia had 83 on the board for the loss of three wickets.
The 37-year-old received some treatment for his 'tight calf' from England's physiotherapist on the field itself and continued to field for the rest of the session but he left the ground during the lunch interval.
He is expected to have a scan later on in the day and updates on his availability for the rest of the match will follow soon.
This comes as a big blow for England given that Anderson had sustained the same injury while playing for Lancashire in the County Championship. This has resulted in him missing out on the one-off Test match against Ireland last month. The nation's leading wicket-taker in Test matches was said to be in doubt for the opening fixture of the Ashes but he somehow pulled through with some medication to feature in the playing XI.
England would hope that the injury isn't too serious so that the talismanic bowler can be fit for the second Test at Lord's which is set to begin on 14 August.